Eur. Phys. J. AP
Volume 15, Number 3, September 2001
|Page(s)||167 - 172|
|Section||Surfaces, Interfaces and Films|
|Published online||15 September 2001|
About the secondary electron yield and the sign of charging of electron irradiated insulators
DTI (UMR 6107), Faculté des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2, France
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Revised: 26 April 2001
Accepted: 26 April 2001
Published online: 15 September 2001
Following the total yield approach (used to predict the sign of charging of electron irradiated insulators) a positive charging is expected when the primary beam energy Ep is situated in the energy range where the number of outgoing electrons, , is larger than the number of incoming electrons, I0. But a negative charging is often experimentally observed when a positive charging is predicted. The present paper is an attempt to elucidate this experimental fact. The arguments being developed are based on the use of a dynamic double layer model (+ for the secondary electron mission, SEE; − for the incident electron implantation) which explains a negative charging via the influence of an evolving S-shape potential function, V(z), which induces a partial freezing of the nominal (uncharged) SEE, δ°, combined to a progressive compression of the negative space charge below the surface. The observed large difference in the measurements of the yield by using pulse excitation methods, or by permanent irradiation methods, δ° or δ is then explained. Furthermore, the influence of an oblique incidence is also deduced.
PACS: 79.20.Hx – Electron impact: secondary emission / 61.82.Ms – Insulators / 61.16.Bg – Transmission, reflection and scanning electron microscopy (including EBIC)
© EDP Sciences, 2001
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