Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.
Volume 37, Number 1, January 2007
|Page(s)||79 - 86|
|Section||Characterization of Materials: Imaging, Microscopy and Spectroscopy|
|Published online||08 November 2006|
Charging regime of PMMA studied by secondary electron emission
Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bât. 510, Université Paris XI,
91405 Orsay, France
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Revised: 18 May 2006
Accepted: 13 September 2006
Published online: 8 November 2006
Foils of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) 2 mm thick were studied by measuring the total Secondary Electron Emission yield (SEE yield) in a dedicated Scanning Electron Microscope especially equipped to study the fundamental aspects of the charge transport and trapping in insulating materials. The intrinsic SEE yield , (yield of the uncharged material) and the charging kinetics were studied under low current density pA/cm2. The curve of the primary beam energy variation of exhibits a maximum intrinsic yield at 370 ± 20 eV and two crossover energies ± 20 eV and ± 20 eV for which . For 1 PMMA is positively charged and negatively for 1. As electron injection is proceeding under the low current density used, the SEE yield varies from to the steady value . This value that expresses the equality between the average number of emitted and injected electrons, characterizes the steady charge regime called “Self-Regulated Regime”. The evolution of during the injection process is due to the internal field that blocks or enhances the secondary electron emission, according to the positive or negative nature of the trapped charges. A current density effect, characterized by a steady SEE yield slightly higher than unity, , instead of one, is observed at high energy (for example 4000 eV) for a strong current density pA/cm2. It is interpreted by a field ionisation (Poole-Frenkel type) that enhances the secondary electron emission.
PACS: 79.20.Hx – Electron impact: secondary emission / 68.37.Hk – Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (including EBIC) / 61.80.Fe – Electron and positron radiation effects
© EDP Sciences, 2006
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