Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.
Volume 67, Number 1, July 2014
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Section||Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies|
|Published online||11 July 2014|
Post-annealing treatment for Cu-TiO2 nanotubes and their use in photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal ions removal
School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus, 14300
Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2 Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), 3rd Floor, Block A, Institute of Postgraduate Studies (IPS), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2118, Japan
a e-mail: email@example.com
Revised: 2 March 2014
Accepted: 4 March 2014
Published online: 11 July 2014
TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil at 60 V for 1 h in a bath with electrolytes composed of ethylene glycol containing 5 wt.% of NH4F and 1 vol.% of H2O2. The incorporation of optimum Cu2+ ions (1.30 at.%) into TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by using wet impregnation method to improve their photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal removal. The small Cu2+ ions were successfully diffused into lattice of TiO2 nanotubes by conducting post-annealing treatment at 400 °C for 4 h in argon atmosphere after wet impregnation. In this manner, optimum Cu2+ ions played a crucial role in suppressing the recombination of charge carriers by forming inter-band states (mismatch of the band energies) within the lattice of Cu-TiO2. The experimental results showed that a maximum of 80% methyl orange removal and 97.3% Pb(II) heavy metal removal at pH 11 under UV irradiation for 5 h. Besides, it was noticed that photocatalytic Pb(II) heavy metal removal was strong dependence on pH of the solution because of the amphoteric character of Cu-TiO2 in an aqueous medium.
© EDP Sciences, 2014
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