Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.
Volume 28, Number 1, October 2004
|Page(s)||83 - 104|
|Section||Plasma, Discharges and Processes|
|Published online||05 August 2004|
Spectroscopic and NMR identification of novel hydride ions in fractional quantum energy states formed by an exothermic reaction of atomic hydrogen with certain catalysts
BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512, USA
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Revised: 7 October 2003
Accepted: 12 March 2004
Published online: 5 August 2004
2K+ to K + K2+ and K to K3+ provide a reaction with a net enthalpy equal to one and three times the potential energy of atomic hydrogen, respectively. The presence of these gaseous ions or atoms with thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a so-called resonance transfer (rt)-plasma having strong VUV emission with a stationary inverted Lyman population. Significant line broadening of the Balmer , , and lines of 18 eV was observed, compared to 3–4 eV from a hydrogen microwave plasma. Emission from rt-plasmas occurred even when the electric field applied to the plasma was zero. The reaction was exothermic since excess power of 20 mW cm−3 was measured by Calvet calorimetry. An energetic catalytic reaction was proposed involving a resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and 2K+ or K to form very stable novel hydride ions H−(1/p) called hydrino hydrides having a fractional principal quantum numbers p = 2 and p = 4, respectively. Characteristic emission was observed from K2+ and K3+ that confirmed the resonant nonradiative energy transfer of 27.2 eV and 3 × 27.2 eV from atomic hydrogen to 2K+ and K, respectively. The product hydride ion H−(1/4) was observed spectroscopically at 110 nm corresponding to its predicted binding energy of 11.2 eV. The 1H MAS NMR spectrum of novel compound KH*Cl relative to external tetramethylsilane (TMS) showed a large distinct upfield resonance at −4.4 corresponding to an absolute resonance shift of −35.9 ppm that matched the theoretical prediction of p = 4. A novel peak of KH*I at −1.5 ppm relative to TMS corresponding to an absolute resonance shift of –33.0 ppm matched the theoretical prediction of p = 2. The predicted catalyst reactions, position of the upfield-shifted NMR peaks for H−(1/4) and H−(1/2), and spectroscopic data for H−(1/4) were found to be in agreement with the experimental observations as well as previously reported spectroscopic data for H−(1/2) and analysis of KH*Cl and KH*I containing these hydride ions.
PACS: 33.20.Ni – Vacuum ultraviolet spectra / 33.25.+k – Nuclear resonance and relaxation
© EDP Sciences, 2004
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