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(a) Schematic representation of the 3-layer slab waveguides family; the guiding layer yields a refractive index n 1 and a height 2h, the upper cladding n 3 and the substrate n 4 are both considered as semi-infinite layers. (b) Schematic representation of the family of 4-layer slab waveguides; the index n 1 and n 2 are associated with respectively the guiding layer and the first upper cladding whose height are respectively 2h and 2e. The upper cladding and the substrate of index n 3 and n 4 are considered as semi-infinite layers.

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