Free Access
Review
Issue
Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.
Volume 72, Number 1, October 2015
Article Number 10601
Number of page(s) 20
Section Spintronics, Magnetism and Superconductivity
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/epjap/2015150214
Published online 05 October 2015
  1. J. Lenz, A.S. Edelstein, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 631 (2006) [CrossRef]
  2. S. Tumanski, Przeglad Elektrotechniczny R. 89, 1 (2013)
  3. www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2007/advanced-physicsprize2007.pdf
  4. D.E. Heim, R.E. Fontana Jr., C. Tsang, V.S. Speriosu, B.A. Gurney, M.L. Williams, IEEE Trans. Magn. 30, 316 (1994) [CrossRef]
  5. S.H. Voldman, A.J. Wallash, R.B. Wilcox Jr., Patent US 5559051A, Process for manufacturing a silicon chip with an integrated magnetoresistive head mounted on a slider, 1996
  6. D.A. Hall, R.S. Gaster, K.A.A. Makinwa, S.X. Wang, B. Murmann, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48, 1290 (2013) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. www.sensitec.com/english/technology/mr-sensortechnology/mr-sensortechnologie.html
  8. M. Tondra, A. Jander, C.A. Nordman, J. Anderson, Z. Qian, D. Wang, Three-axis magnetometers using spin-dependent tunneling: reduced size and power, in Proc. SPIE 5090, Unattended Ground Sensor Technologies and Applications V, vol. 5090, edited by E.M. Carapezza (SPIE, International society for optics and photonics, Orlando, USA, 2003), p. 208 [CrossRef]
  9. R. Ferreira, E. Paz, P.P. Freitas, J. Ribeiro, J. Germano, L. Sousa, IEEE Trans. Magn. 48, 4107 (2012) [CrossRef]
  10. A. Lopes, S. Cardoso, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, F.L. Deepak, J. Sanchez, D. Ramirez, S.I. Ravelo, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 49, 3866 (2013) [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Ouyang, J. He, J. Hu, S.X. Wang, Sensors 12, 15520 (2012) [CrossRef]
  12. D.C. Leitao, J. Borme, A. Orozco, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensors, vol. 6 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013), pp. 275–299 [CrossRef]
  13. A. Jander, C. Smith, R. Schneider, Magnetoresistive sensors for nondestructive evaluation (invited paper), in Proc. SPIE 5770, Advanced Sensor Technologies for Nondestructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring, vol. 5770, edited by N. Meyendorf, G.Y. Baaklini, B. Michel (SPIE, International society for optics and photonics, San Diego, USA, 2005), p. 1 [CrossRef]
  14. F.A. Cardoso, L. Rosado, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, S. Cardoso, P.M. Ramos, M. Piedade, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17E516 (2014) [CrossRef]
  15. D.L. Graham, H.A. Ferreira, P.P. Freitas, Trends Biotechnol. 22, 455 (2004), [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V.C. Martins, F.A. Cardoso, J. Germano, S. Cardoso, L. Sousa, M. Piedade, P.P. Freitas, L.P. Fonseca, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2690 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P.P. Freitas, F.A. Cardoso, V.C. Martins, S.A.M. Martins, J. Loureiro, J. Amaral, R.C. Chaves, S. Cardoso, L.P. Fonseca, A.M. Sebastiao, M. Pannetier-Lecoeur, C. Fermon, Lab on a Chip 12, 546 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R.S. Gaster, D.A. Hall, S.X. Wang, Lab on a Chip 11, 950 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Xu, H. Yu, M.S. Akhras, S.-J. Han, S. Osterfeld, R.L. White, N. Pourmand, S.X. Wang, Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 99 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Nordling, R.L. Millen, H.A. Bullen, M.D. Porter, Anal. Chem. 80, 7930 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Li, S. Sun, R.J. Wilson, R.L. White, N. Pourmand, S.X. Wang, Sens. Actuators A: Phys. 126, 98 (2006) [CrossRef]
  22. M. Pannetier, C. Fermon, G. Le Goff, J. Simola, E. Kerr, Science 304, 1648 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Amaral, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, A.M. Sebastiao, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 07B308 (2011) [CrossRef]
  24. J. Amaral, V. Pinto, T. Costa, J. Gaspar, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 49, 3512 (2013) [CrossRef]
  25. S. Yuasa, D.D. Djayaprawira, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, R337 (2007) [CrossRef]
  26. W. Thomson, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 8, 546 (1857) [CrossRef]
  27. T. McGuire, R. Potter, IEEE Trans. Magn. 11, 1018 (1975) [CrossRef]
  28. V. Gehanno, P.P. Freitas, A. Veloso, J. Ferreira,\break B. Almeida, B. Sousa, A. Kling, M.F. Da Silva, IEEE Trans. Magn. 35, 4361 (1999) [CrossRef]
  29. M.N. Baibich, J.M. Broto, A. Fert, F.N. Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Etienne, G. Creuzet, A. Friederich, J. Chazelas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2472 (1988) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S.S.P. Parkin, Z.G. Li, D.J. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2710 (1991) [CrossRef]
  31. P. Grunberg, Patent US 4949039 A, Magnetic field sensor with ferromagnetic thin layers having magnetically antiparallel polarized components, 1990
  32. B. Dieny, B.A. Gurney, S. Metin, S.S.P. Parkin, V.S. Speriosu, Patent US 5159513 A, Magnetoresistive sensor based on the spin valve effect, 1991
  33. B. Dieny, V.S. Speriosu, S.S.P. Parkin, B.A. Gurney, D.R. Wilhoit, D. Mauri, Phys. Rev. B 43, 1297 (1991) [CrossRef]
  34. J. Hong, H. Kanai, Y. Uehara, Very large GMR of spin valve with specularly reflective layers, in INTERMAG Europ. 2002. Digest of Technical Papers, 2002, p. CA3
  35. M. Julliere, Phys. Lett. A 54, 225 (1975) [CrossRef]
  36. R. Meservey, P.M. Tedrow, Phys. Rep. 238, 173 (1994) [CrossRef]
  37. D. Wang, C. Nordman, J.M. Daughton, Z. Qian, J. Fink, IEEE Trans. Magn. 40, 2269 (2004) [CrossRef]
  38. S. Ikeda, J. Hayakawa, Y. Ashizawa, Y.M. Lee, K. Miura, H. Hasegawa, M. Tsunoda, F. Matsukura, H. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 082508 (2008) [CrossRef]
  39. D. Watanabe, M. Oogane, S. Mizukami, Y. Ando, T. Miyazaki, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 48, 013001 (2009) [CrossRef]
  40. F.A. Cardoso, L.S. Rosado, F. Franco, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, S.F. Cardoso, P.M. Ramos, M. Piedade, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 50, 1 (2014) [CrossRef]
  41. J.P. Valadeiro, J. Amaral, D.C. Leitao, R. Ferreira, S. Freitas Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 51, 1 (2015) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. D.C. Leitao, E. Paz, A.V. Silva, A. Moskaltsova, S. Knudde, F.L. Deepak, R. Ferreira, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 50, 1 (2014) [CrossRef]
  43. W.H. Butler, X.-G. Zhang, T.C. Schulthess, J.M. MacLaren, Phys. Rev. B 63, 054416 (2001) [CrossRef]
  44. S. Yuasa, T. Nagahama, A. Fukushima, Y. Suzuki, K. Ando, Nat. Mater. 3, 868 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. C. Tiusan, F. Greullet, M. Hehn, F. Montaigne, S. Andrieu, A. Schuhl, Phys. B: Condens. Matter 19, 165201 (2007) [CrossRef]
  46. S. Cardoso, S. Knudde, R.C. Chaves, F.A. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biosensing and Medicine (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2015)
  47. T.G.S.M. Rijks, R. Coehoorn, J.T.F. Daemen, W.J.M. de Jonge, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1092 (1994) [CrossRef]
  48. B.A. Everitt, D. Wang, J.M. Daughton, IEEE Trans. Magn. 32, 4657 (1996) [CrossRef]
  49. J.R. Childress, M.M. Schwickert, R.E. Fontana, M.K. Ho, P.M. Rice, B.A. Gurney, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7353 (2001) [CrossRef]
  50. W.J. Gallagher, S.S.P. Parkin, Y. Lu, X.P. Bian, A. Marley, K.P. Roche, R.A. Altman, S. Rishton, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3741 (1997) [CrossRef]
  51. M.D. Stiles, Ultrathin Magnetic Structures III, edited by J. Bland, B. Heinrich (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 99–142 [CrossRef]
  52. A.V. Silva, D.C. Leitao, Z. Huo, R.J. Macedo, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, F.L. Deepak, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 49, 4405 (2013) [CrossRef]
  53. M. Rickart, A. Guedes, B. Negulescu, J. Ventura, J.B. Sousa, P. Diaz, M. MacKenzie, J.N. Chapman, P.P. Freitas, Eur. Phys. J. B 45, 207 (2005) [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences]
  54. G.W. Anderson, Y. Huai, M. Pakala, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 5726 (2000) [CrossRef]
  55. H. Jaffrès, D. Lacour, F. Nguyen Van Dau, J. Briatico, F. Petroff, A. Vaurès, Phys. Rev. B 64, 064427 (2001) [CrossRef]
  56. F.J. Friedlaender, E. Kneller, S. Methfessel, D. Wagner, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 3469 (1991) [CrossRef]
  57. R. Engel-Herbert, T. Hesjedal, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074504 (2005) [CrossRef]
  58. S. Cardoso, C. Cavaco, R. Ferreira, L. Pereira, M. Rickart, P.P. Freitas, N. Franco, J. Gouveia, N.P. Barradas, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 10C916 (2005) [CrossRef]
  59. J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, Y.M. Lee, R. Sasaki, T. Meguro, F. Matsukura, H. Takahashi, H. Ohno, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1057 (2006) [CrossRef]
  60. G. Feng, S. van Dijken, J.F. Feng, J.M.D. Coey, T. Leo, D.J. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 033916 (2009) [CrossRef]
  61. S.H. Liou, X. Yin, S.E. Russek, R. Heindl, F.C.S. da Silva, J. Moreland, D.P. Pappas, L. Yuan, J. Shen, IEEE Trans. Magn. 47, 3740 (2011) [CrossRef]
  62. R. Ferreira, E. Paz, P.P. Freitas, J. Wang, S. Xue, IEEE Trans. Magn. 48, 3719 (2012) [CrossRef]
  63. E.Y. Chen, R. Whig, J.M. Slaughter, D. Cronk, J. Goggin, G. Steiner, S. Tehrani, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 6061 (2000) [CrossRef]
  64. X. Batlle, B.J. Hattink, A. Labarta, J. Akerman, R. Escudero, I.K. Schuller, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 260, 78 (2003) [CrossRef]
  65. J. Akerman, J.M. Slaughter, R.W. Dave, I.K. Schuller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3104 (2001) [CrossRef]
  66. Z.G. Zhang, P.P. Freitas, A.R. Ramos, N.P. Barradas, J.C. Soares, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2219 (2001) [CrossRef]
  67. H. Boeve, J. De Boeck, G. Borghs, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 482 (2001) [CrossRef]
  68. P.P. Freitas, S. Cardoso, R. Sousa, W. Ku, R. Ferreira, V. Chu, J.P. Conde, IEEE Trans. Magn. 36, 2796 (2000) [CrossRef]
  69. S. Tehrani, B. Engel, J.M. Slaughter, E. Chen, M. DeHerrera, M. Durlam, P. Naji, R. Whig, J. Janesky, J. Calder, IEEE Trans. Magn. 36, 2752 (2000) [CrossRef]
  70. J. Akerman, M. DeHerrera, J.M. Slaughter, R. Dave, J.J. Sun, J.T. Martin, S. Tehrani, IEEE Trans. Magn. 42, 2661 (2006) [CrossRef]
  71. D. Wang, J.M. Daughton, Z. Qian, M. Tondra, C. Nordman, IEEE Trans. Magn. 39, 2812 (2003) [CrossRef]
  72. S.X. Wang, S.-Y. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R.L. White, J.T. Kemp, C.D. Webb, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 293, 731 (2005) [CrossRef]
  73. T. Zhao, K. Zhang, H.-C. Wang, Y.-H. Chen, M. Li, Patent US 7333306B2, Magnetoresistive spin valve sensor with tri-layer free layer, 2008
  74. S.S.P. Parkin, C. Kaiser, A. Panchula, P.M. Rice, B. Hughes, M. Samant, S.H. Yang, Nat. Mater. 3, 862 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  75. J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, Y.M. Lee, R. Sasaki, T. Meguro, F. Matsukura, H. Takahashi, H. Ohno, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1267 (2005) [CrossRef]
  76. P.P. Freitas, R. Ferreira, S. Cardoso, F. Cardoso, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 165221 (2007) [CrossRef]
  77. K.B. Klaassen, X. Xing, J.C.L. van Peppen, IEEE Trans. Magn. 40, 195 (2004) [CrossRef]
  78. R.C. Chaves, S. Cardoso, R. Ferreira, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 07E506 (2011)
  79. S. Ikeda, K. Miura, H. Yamamoto, K. Mizunuma, H.D. Gan, M. Endo, S. Kanai, J. Hayakawa, F. Matsukura, H. Ohno, Nat. Mater. 9, 721 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  80. Z.M. Zeng, P. Khalili Amiri, J.A. Katine, J. Langer, K.L. Wang, H.W. Jiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 062412 (2012) [CrossRef]
  81. W. Skowronski, P. Wisniowski, T. Stobiecki, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, S. van Dijken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 192401 (2012) [CrossRef]
  82. B. Negulescu, D. Lacour, F. Montaigne, A. Gerken, J. Paul, V. Spetter, J. Marien, C. Duret, M. Hehn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 112502 (2009) [CrossRef]
  83. J.Y. Chen, J.F. Feng, J.M.D. Coey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 142407 (2012) [CrossRef]
  84. S.H. Liao, S.W. Yuan, H.N. Bertram, IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 3873 (1993) [CrossRef]
  85. S. Cardoso, D.C. Leitao, L. Gameiro, F. Cardoso, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, P.P. Freitas, Microsys. Technol. 20, 793 (2014) [CrossRef]
  86. R.J. Janeiro, L. Gameiro, A. Lopes, S. Cardoso, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 48, 4111 (2012) [CrossRef]
  87. F. Jeffers, J. Freeman, R. Toussaint, N. Smith, D. Wachenschwanz, S. Shtrikman, W. Doyle, IEEE Trans. Magn. 21, 1563 (1985) [CrossRef]
  88. K. Yamada, T. Maruyama, T. Tatsumi, T. Suzuki, K. Shimabayashi, Y. Motomura, M. Aoyama, H. Urai, IEEE Trans. Magn. 26, 3010 (1990) [CrossRef]
  89. M. Kitada, Y. Kamo, H. Tanabe, H. Tsuchiya, K. Momata, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1667 (1985) [CrossRef]
  90. R.C. Chaves, P.P. Freitas, B. Ocker, W. Maass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 102504 (2007) [CrossRef]
  91. P. Wisniowski, J.M. Almeida, S. Cardoso, N.P. Barradas, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07A910 (2008) [CrossRef]
  92. J.M. Almeida, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 07E722 (2009) [CrossRef]
  93. J.M. Teixeira, J. Ventura, M.P. Fernandez-Garcia, J.P. Araujo, J.B. Sousa, P. Wisniowski, D.C. Leitao, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053930 (2012) [CrossRef]
  94. C.C. Tsai, C.-W. Cheng, M.-C. Tsai, G. Chern, IEEE Trans. Magn. 50, 1 (2014)
  95. W. Shen, B.D. Schrag, A. Girdhar, M.J. Carter, H. Sang, G. Xiao, Phys. Rev. B 79, 014418 (2009) [CrossRef]
  96. J. van Driel, F.R. de Boer, K.-M.H. Lenssen, R. Coehoorn, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 975 (2000) [CrossRef]
  97. J. Nogues, I.K. Schuller, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 192, 203 (1999) [CrossRef]
  98. D.C. Leitao, A.V. Silva, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, F.L. Deepack, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17E526 (2014) [CrossRef]
  99. N. Kobayashi, S. Ohnuma, S. Murakami, T. Masumoto, S. Mitani, H. Fujimori, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 188, 30 (1998) [CrossRef]
  100. J.L. Prieto, J.E. Evetts, M.G. Blamire, N. Rouse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 8578 (2002) [CrossRef]
  101. P.P. Freitas, J.L. Costa, N. Almeida, L.V. Melo, F. Silva, J. Bernardo, C. Santos, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 5459 (1999) [CrossRef]
  102. D.C. Leitao, L. Gameiro, A.V. Silva, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn. 48, 3847 (2012) [CrossRef]
  103. Y. Shimada, M. Shimoda, O. Kitakami, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 34, 4786 (1995) [CrossRef]
  104. J. Ben Youssef, N. Vukadinovic, D. Billet, M. Labrune, Phys. Rev. B 69, 174402 (2004) [CrossRef]
  105. I.G. Trindade, D.C. Leitao, Y. Pogorelov, J.B. Sousa, R.C. Chaves, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 073501 (2009) [CrossRef]
  106. S.S.P. Parkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3598 (1991) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  107. E.R. Nowak, M.B. Weissman, S.S.P. Parkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 600 (1999) [CrossRef]
  108. Z.Q. Lei, G.J. Li, W.F. Egelhoff, P.T. Lai, P.W.T. Pong, IEEE Trans. Magn. 47, 602 (2011) [CrossRef]
  109. J.M. Almeida, R. Ferreira, P.P. Freitas, J. Langer, B. Ocker, W. Maass, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08B314 (2006) [CrossRef]
  110. R. Stearrett, W.G. Wang, L.R. Shah, J.Q. Xiao, E.R. Nowak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 243502 (2010) [CrossRef]
  111. D. Herranz, A. Gomez-Ibarlucea, M. Schäfers, A. Lara, G. Reiss, F.G. Aliev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 062511 (2011) [CrossRef]
  112. S. Amara-Dababi, H. Béa, R.C. Sousa, C. Baraduc, B. Dieny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 052404 (2013) [CrossRef]
  113. R. Stearrett, W.G. Wang, X. Kou, J.F. Feng, J.M.D. Coey, J.Q. Xiao, E.R. Nowak, Phys. Rev. B 86, 014415 (2012) [CrossRef]
  114. G.Q. Yu, Z. Diao, J.F. Feng, H. Kurt, X.F. Han, J.M.D. Coey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 112504 (2011) [CrossRef]
  115. F.G. Aliev, R. Guerrero, D. Herranz, R. Villar, F. Greullet, C. Tiusan, M. Hehn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 232504 (2007) [CrossRef]
  116. D. Herranz, R. Guerrero, J.P. Cascales, F.G. Aliev, M. Hehn, C. Tiusan, Acta Physica Polonica A 121, 981 (2012)
  117. D. Herranz, F. Bonell, A. Gomez-Ibarlucea, S. Andrieu, F. Montaigne, R. Villar, C. Tiusan, F.G. Aliev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 202501 (2010) [CrossRef]
  118. E. Paz, S. Serrano-Guisan, R. Ferreira, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17E501 (2014) [CrossRef]
  119. L. Jiang, E.R. Nowak, P.E. Scott, J. Johnson, J.M. Slaughter, J.J. Sun, R.W. Dave, Phys. Rev. B 69, 054407 (2004) [CrossRef]
  120. E.R. Nowak, P. Spradling, M.B. Weissman, S.S.P. Parkin, Thin Solid Films 377–378, 699 (2000) [CrossRef]
  121. Y. Aoki, H. Kinoshita, T. Mizuno, H. Sugawara, H. Sato, K. Matsuda, A. Kamijo, H. Tsuge, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 240, 134 (2002) [CrossRef]
  122. J. Schmalhorst, G. Reiss, Phys. Rev. B 68, 224437 (2003) [CrossRef]
  123. Y.M. Lee, J. Hayakawa, S. Ikeda, F. Matsukura, H. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212507 (2007) [CrossRef]
  124. W. Zhang, Q. Hao, G. Xiao, Phys. Rev. B 84, 094446 (2011) [CrossRef]
  125. D.W. Guo, F.A. Cardoso, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, S. Cardoso, P.P. Freitas, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17E513 (2014) [CrossRef]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.