Submitting your illustrations, pictures and other artwork (such as multimedia and supplementary files) in an electronic format helps us produce your work to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail.
This guide will show how to prepare your artwork for electronic submission and includes information and suggestions on how to produce the best results and deal with common problems, a brief summary of which follows below:
If after reading this you require any further guidance on creating suitable electronic figures, please contact your Press editor who will be able to advise you further.
Cambridge Journals recommends that only TIFF, EPS or PDF formats are used for electronic artwork.
The above files are generally NOT suitable for conversion to print reproduction. While JPEG and GIF are good formats for images online, they are not ideal for print. JPEG is a ‘lossy’ format, which means that it loses colour information. This is not normally an issue on a computer monitor, but is noticeable in print. While a high-quality JPEG can be used, particularly for photographs, TIFF is the preferred format. GIF has a lack of colour depth and so images may appear ‘posterised’ in print. While a high-resolution GIF can be used, again TIFF is the preferred format. Excel can be used to prepare graphs and the EPS files can be produced using the ‘Print’ option outlined above. PowerPoint should be used with caution as this application is intended for producing visual presentations rather than print output, but with care can produce quality artwork.
Line art is any image that consists of distinct straight and curved lines placed against a plain background without gradations in shade or colour. Line art is usually monochromatic but can use lines of different colours.
A halftone can be colour (CMYK) or black and white, and is an image with continuous tone, such as a photograph or micrograph.
A combination illustration is one that contains both continuous tone and line/vector elements: in short a combination of line art and halftone together (in greyscale and/or colour). This may be a photograph with labelling, or a micrograph with a scale bar added, for example. Refer to the guidelines for line illustrations and halftones as they are all applicable for combination artwork. Because of the necessity to produce clear and sharp text within the image, the resolution needs to be higher, often resulting in a larger file size, so it’s imperative that LZW compression is used when saving files in TIFF format to enable easy file transfer.
It is best to provide your figures at the same size or larger than they will be reproduced in the printed journal, either by cropping or scaling. Images should be sized to fit the width of a column or page in the journal you are publishing in. If the originals you supply are smaller in size than they will appear in the journal, they may lose some clarity and detail when enlarged. In particular, photographs that have already been scanned will tend to look pixelated, and line drawings will lose their sharpness.
To ensure the best reproduction possible, please ensure that any fonts used to create or label figures are embedded, and we also recommend that you use the following Cambridge approved fonts (in 9 pt):
Failure to use the approved fonts may result in missing symbols or overlapping type within the illustrations. The font you use should be consistent throughout the artwork.
Images downloaded from the internet tend to be ‘low resolution’, that is 72 or 96 dpi, meaning that they will not provide adequate quality when printed. If you wish to use an image which appears on a website, please contact the site’s administrator, or the creator of the image, and obtain a copy of the high resolution original. Of course this isn’t always possible so while low resolution internet images are not recommended, their use is sometimes unavoidable.
We need to see a copy of the permission statement for each figure that has been previously published. Approach the original publisher first; they will tell you if you need to approach the author. It is preferable to use your own material for illustrations, figures and tables, or to adapt other material, rather than reproduce from another source. If figures and/or tables do come from another source they must always be acknowledged at the end of the caption. Note that material has to be substantially modified to avoid needing permission to reproduce. Cosmetic changes such as tinting, relabelling, or redrawing as is, are not enough. If an illustration is taken directly from another source without substantial modification you must obtain written permission from the copyright holder, who may be a scientific society, author(s) or publisher(s). (Note that hospitals hold copyright for any photographs taken during the course of work done on their premises and permission needs to be obtained from the patients if the subjects of the photograph can be recognised.) If in doubt, please consult your Press editor. Suggested wordings for permissions letters are shown below:
1. For permission request to use extract/illustration/table from another publisher’s work for which no permission fee is expected to be charged:
I am writing/editing/contributing to an academic work under the provisional title above, to be published by Cambridge University Press in <title of journal>, in <month (if known) and year of publication>.
I request your permission to include the following material in this work:
Date of publication: <volume and issue if applicable>:
ISBN <ISSN if journal>:
Unless otherwise informed, permission will be assumed to grant the nonexclusive right to use the material in print and electronic editions of the work throughout the world, in all revised editions of the work and as part of a sample of the work made available online for promotional purposes only.
I further request permission for the material to be included in any reprint published under licence from Cambridge University Press.
The source of the material will be fully acknowledged in the usual way. Please indicate below if you have any special requirements:
Please indicate your agreement to this request by signing and returning one copy of this letter. The duplicate is for your own records. By your countersignature, you warrant that you control these rights and are authorised to grant this permission.
If this is not the case, I would be grateful if you could let me know to whom I should apply.
I/we hereby grant the permission detailed above.
Signed:....................................... Date: .........................2. For permission request to a museum, agency etc. for the use of an illustration for which a permission fee is expected to be charged:
<Cambridge journal title>
I am writing/editing/contributing to an article entitled <article title> to be published by Cambridge University Press in the above journal. Cambridge University Press is a not-for-profit organisation, and my article is intended principally for scholars and their libraries.
I request your permission to include the following material in this work:
<details of illustration(s)>
I require the nonexclusive right to use the material in print and electronic editions of the work in all languages throughout the world, in all subsequent reprints and as part of a digitised extract from the work made available online for promotional purposes only.
Please advise me of your terms and conditions. In accordance with normal publishing practice, any permission fee will be paid on publication of the work.